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Tetrahydrocannabivarin THCV (C-3)

THCV

What is THCV?

Tetrahydrocannabivarin(THCV) is one of the more known unique cannabinoids that can be found in the plant. Certain chemovars(strains) of cannabis and hemp that originate from Southern and Central Africa, as well as India, contain this specific cannabinoid in concentrations around 1-5%. Genetically bred strains have recorded yielding up to 10% THCV in the plant. More often than not, CBDV also appears alongside THCV. 

When isolated, synthesized, or extracted, THCV is a dark amber crystal at room temperature. The compound has a waxy, yet shiny, surface in a manner similar to quartz.  It has a much higher boiling/vaporization point than THC, vaporizing at 422*F. For comparison, THC vaporizes at 314*F. Because of this, THCV may be harsher in smokable/dab form over THC. Those with sensitive or compromised lung function should probably avoid vaporization and instead opt for oral consumption.


What Is the Potency/Strength of THCV In Regards to THC?

While psychoactive, it has roughly 1/3 the potency of THC, and has a clear headed effect combined with a level of motivating/mood elevating effects. THCV has a CB1 binding affinity of 68nM, which is about half of THC (40nM). It is important to note that high doses of THCV seem to act with much more affinity on CB1 receptors, bearing more similarity to THC at higher doses. This means that there is a point at which higher THCV doses actually increase the psychological intensity, indicating the maximum intensity achievable is likely higher than is typical.


What Are the Effects of THCV Compared to THC?

THCV is metabolized in the same pathway/route as THC, producing hydroxylated metabolites that play into the overall effect that is experienced. However, THCV seems to differ in that it is metabolized faster than THC, and produces less active metabolites overall. This gives THCV a faster onset of effects, as well as a reduction in the overall duration of effects. Many individuals have reported that THCV is an excellent cannabinoid to use for exercise, focus, and alertness. The stimulating properties combined with nootropic properties results in a very clean and focused high.

At this time, THCV is the only known cannabinoid that can promote weight loss and suppress appetite. THCV is considered a mixed agonist-antagonist, which means it has properties and effects of cannabinoids and anti-cannabinoids, and explains why the compound has appetite-suppressing properties. It also explains why THCV can reduce the intoxicating properties of THC, without reducing the therapeutic benefit, when the two cannabinoids are combined.


Interesting Scientific Discoveries On THCV?

THCV is metabolized in the same pathway/route as THC, producing hydroxylated metabolites that play into the overall effect that is experienced. However, THCV seems to differ in that it is metabolized faster than THC, and produces less active metabolites overall. This gives THCV a faster onset of effects, as well as a reduction in the overall duration of effects.

Current research regarding THCV has been focused on the treatment and management of obesity, ADHD, and diabetes. In multiple medical inquiries and pharmaceutical models, THCV consistently reduced insulin resistance and stimulated physical movements. It has also been shown to reduce the storage/accumulation of fat cells within the body. These stimulating and neuroprotective effects are unique compared to other cannabinoids, which has brought much research and medical interest into what this compound is able to provide to patients.


D8-THCV also exists on the market, however research into this variant is virtually non-existent. D8-THCV has not been found in the plant, but likely is natural due to the degradation pathway of THC into D8-THC. In its pure form, it occurs as a yellow crystal, but otherwise shares near identical physical properties. Current research shows the D8 variant of THCV has the same mechanisms of action as the original variant(D9), but seems to not be active at the CB2 receptor. This means that D8-THCV may lack the immune-supporting effects that THC and most cannabinoids have on the body’s immune system.



Potential Medical Uses for THCV:

-Analgesia(pain relief)

-Anticonvulsant/Anti-Seizure Medication

-Anti-Inflammation

-Management of ADHD

-Nootropic/Neuroprotectant Usage

-Insulin Sensitizer(Diabetic Management)

-Management of Autism-Spectrum Disorders

-Lipogenesis Supression(Weight Loss)

-Anti-Allergen(Relief of Allergies)

 

(-)-trans-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin

Informational Sources:

-Physical, chemical properties:

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Tetrahydrocannabivarin

-Delta-8-THCV and THCV binding affinity assays:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-56785-1/figures/3

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2189766/

-THCV metabolism, bioavailability, absorption:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2839261/

-THCV effects on obsessive-compulsive behavior:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21796370/

-Effects on weight-loss, lipogenesis:

https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-020-0016-7